By A. Gullo
Improving criteria of care is a true problem in in depth Care drugs. enhancing medical functionality, sufferer defense, chance administration and audit represents the cornerstone for elevating the standard of care in ICU sufferers. conversation is the platform from the place to begin to arrive a consensus in a really crowded sector, a distinct multidisciplinary and multiprofessional setting within which caliber of care and, finally, sufferer survival have to be ameliorated.
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Extra resources for Anaesthesia, pain, intensive care and emergency A.P.I.C.E.: proceedings of the 22st postgraduate course in critical medicine: Venice-Mestre, Italy - November 9-11, 2007
Chest 104:214-219 17. Bernard Y, Meneveau N, Vuillemenod A et al (1997) Planimetry of aortic valve area using multiplane transoesophageal echocardiography is not a reliable method for assessing severity of aortic stenosis. Heart 78:68-73 18. Agricola E, Oppizzi M, Francesco Malsano F et al (2004) Echocardiographic classification of chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation caused by restricted motion according to tethering pattern. Eur J Echocardiography 5:326-334 19. Levine RA, Schwammenthal E (2005) Ischemic mitral regurgitation on the threshold of a solution: from paradoxes to unifying concepts.
Slama M, Masson H, Teboul JL et al (2004) Monitoring of respiratory variations of aortic blood flow velocity using oesophageal Doppler. Intensive Care Med 30:1182-1187 10. Shamir M, Eidelman LA, Floman Y et al (1999) Pulse oximetry plethysmographic waveform during changes in blood volume. Br J Anaesth 82:178-181 11. Cannesson M, Besnard C, Durand PG et al (2005) Relation between respiratory variations in pulse oximetry plethysmographic waveform amplitude and arterial pulse pressure in ventilated patients.
Colour-flow mapping is a useful method for the detection of valvular regurgitation. However, since it may not be accurate enough for reliable quantification in some circumstances, a volumetric approach is preferable. In cases of massive mitral regurgitation (MR) or aortic regurgitation (AR), any measurement may be difficult. Aortic and mitral stenosis are satisfactorily assessed by the volumetric, continuous wave and pulsed wave Doppler methods . Ischaemic mitral valve insufficiency is very common in the ICU.