By Virgil J. Vogel
The aim of this e-book, says the writer, is to teach the impression of Indian medicinal practices on white civilization. truly it achieves way more. It discusses Indian theories of illness and techniques of scuffling with ailment or even is going into the query of which illnesses have been indigenous and that have been delivered to the Indian through the white guy. It additionally lists Indian medicines that experience gained recognition within the Pharmacopeia of the us and the nationwide Formulary.The impact of yankee Indian therapeutic arts at the medication and therapeutic and pharmacology of the white guy used to be huge. for instance, such medicinal drugs as insulin and penicillin have been expected in rudimentary shape by way of the aborigines. Coca leaves have been used as narcotics by way of Peruvian Indians countless numbers of years prior to Carl Koller first used cocaine as a neighborhood anesthetic in 1884. All jointly, approximately one hundred seventy drugs, commonly botanical, have been contributed to the reliable compendia via Indians north of the Rio Grande, approximately 50 extra coming from natives of the Latin-American and Caribbean regions.Impressions and attitudes of early explorers, settlers, physicians, botanists, and others relating to Indian healing practices are stated by way of nation-states, with British, French, and Spanish colonies and the younger usa individually treated.Indian theories of disease—sorcery, taboo violation, spirit intrusion, soul loss, unfulfilled goals and wishes, etc -and shamanistic practices used to wrestle them are defined. equipment of treating every kind of injuries-from fractures to snakebite-and even surgical procedure are incorporated. The impression of Indian therapeutic lore upon people or household drugs, in addition to at the "Indian medical professionals" and patent medicinal drugs, are mentioned. For the ease of the reader, an index of botanical names is supplied, including a wide selection of illustrations. The disproportionate awareness that has been given to the superstitious and unscientific positive aspects of aboriginal medication has tended to vague its genuine contributions to American civilization.
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Extra resources for American Indian Medicine
Among the Ojibwas, Hoffman described four: highest in rank were the priests of the Midewiwin, or medicine society, to which membership was gained by initiation and the payment of gifts. ; third were the Jessakid, seers and prophets, revealers of hidden truths, possessors of a gift of clairvoyance received from the thunder god. Last were those whom most modern opinions have held to be the most useful of the lot, Mashki-kike-winini, or herbalists, who were generally denominated medicine men, as their name implied.
South American Indians contributed such well-known drugs as coca, cinchona, curare, and ipecac to world medicine. 8 While there is no doubt that Indian medicine, from Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellan, was nowhere a science, there are perhaps grounds for comparing it in that respect with European medicine of the same period, which was still under the sway of the doctrine of signatures and the Galenic humors. While the Aztecs used such substances as decomposed corpse, excrement, and menstrual blood, along with their useful simples, the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis of 1618 included mummy dust, human and pigeon excrement, and stag's penis.
Lester King, and Professor Fred Eggan, tolerated a survey of the curative methods and the medicinal drugs of the Indians of the entire United States. Such a project required, among other things, an examination of the journals, letters, and accounts (published or unpublished) of dozens of explorers, missionaries, traders, and military personnel. The resulting manuscript was accepted for my degree in 1967, and, after some revision and expansion, it was accepted for publication by Savoie Lottinville at the University of Oklahoma Press.