Advanced Organic Chemistry by Valerie Coulter

By Valerie Coulter

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Therefore, the structure in following figure (a) is methylcyclohexane and not cyclohexylmethane. In it there is no need to number the cycloalkane ring when only one substituent is present. Fig. (a) Methylcyclohexane; (b) 1-cyclohexyloctane; (c) l-ethyl-3 methylcyclohexane. If the alkane moiety contains more carbon atoms than the ring, the alkane moiety becomes the parent system and the cycloalkane group becomes the substituent. For example, the structure in above figure(b) is called 1–cyclohexyloctane and not octylcyclohexane.

This is called sp2 hybridisation. 38 Organic Chemistry • The 2s orbital is mixed with one of the 2p orbitals. This is called as sp hybridisation. The other types of hybridisation observed in some other compounds are: (i) dsp2: In it one (n – 1)d orbital and one ns orbital and 2 np orbitals combine to form 4 hybridised orbitals. (ii) d2sp3 or sp3d2: The six hybridised orbitals are formed by mixing up of two λ(n – 1)d orbitals, or two nd orbitals with one ns and three np orbitals. sp3 Hybridisation Definition: The sp3 hybridisation of carbon involves mixing up of the 2s orbitals with all three of the 2p orbitals to give a set of four sp3 hybrid orbitals.

Because of this the amines react with acids to form water soluble salts. This permits the easy separation of amines from other compounds. A crude reaction mixture can be extracted with dilute hydrochloric acid such that any amines present are protonated and dissolve into the aqueous phase as water-soluble salts. The free amine can be recovered by Various Elements 31 adding sodium hydroxide to the aqueous solution such that the free amine precipitates out as a solid are as an oil. Fig. Nucleophilic and electrophilic centres in (a) primary, (b) secondary, and (c) tertiary amines.

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