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Extra resources for Acute toxicology
The skin and industrial dermatosis. National Safety News, April. , and Holland, J. M. (1982). Quantitation of cutaneous toxicity: An in vitro approach using skin organ culture. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 68, 206-217. Lamont, G. , Bagley, D. , Kong, B. , and DeSalva, S. J. (1989). Developing an alternative to the Draize skin test: Comparison of human skin cell responses to irritants in vitro. In In Vitro Toxicology: New Directions (A. M. ), pp. 183-184. Liebert, New York. , and Krag, S. S. (1986).
Importantly, some form of regular refresher training must be exercised--particularly in the area of scoring of results. Use of a set of color photographic standards as a training and reference tool is strongly recommended; such standards should clearly demonstrate each of the grades in the Draize dermal scale. I. Limitations: It should be recognized that the dermal irritancy test is designed with a bias to preclude false negatives and, therefore, tends to exaggerate results in relation to what would happen in humans.
In 1985, Patrick et al. utilized the mouse ear model to evaluate dermal irritants and try to distinguish mechanisms behind irritation. Also, in 1986, Gad et al. published a paper in which a new method for evaluating dermal sensitization was described, but in doing so, also presented a substantial amount of dermal irritation data arising from a mouse ear model. The mouse is cheaper than the rabbit and appears to give results analogous to those in the rabbit. The chief drawbacks to the model appear to be custom and the existence of a large database in the rabbit model.