By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is likely one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic family members (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken by means of nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and by way of not less than an identical variety of audio system in Turkey and a few heart east nations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and by means of its minimum vocalic procedure: in simple terms vowels. although Abkhaz was once studied by way of a few students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply okay. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many points of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless must be effectively defined. Abkhaz is the single West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical sessions, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in classification of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative development being represented no longer through case endings, as in comparable Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet via order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed often of 1 consonant, preceded through a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and via few suffixes. Verbs will be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical comic strip of Abkhaz contains information regarding its phonological method, morphology, and syntax. a brief textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Additional info for Abkhaz
Phonetics of Loanwords. Qld(er) loans are modified to meet the patterns of the Abkhaz phonological system. g. a-wips ' Ossette' < Megr ops1; a-wlirba 'eagle' < Geo orb-i ), 61 The presence of the final -a in the Abkhaz form is not clear. t 'water-melon' < Tu karpuz) or were stripped of their timbre altogether (cf. a-da§'man 'enemy' < Tu diqman). ). The glottalized and aspirated consonants in words borrowed from the surrounding Caucasian languages were, naturally, left unchanged if they had exact matches in Abkhaz.
There is also a small group of old Alanic (P~oto-Ossetian) ~d (non-Turkish) Turkic borrowings. e. aft~ the 1860~. The number of Kartvelian loans in Proto-Abkhaz (dated approximately to the 10 century) IS ca. 30 lexemes. The process of borrowing from Kartvelian languages has been effectively stopped since the 1950s. Turkish lexemes started to enter Abkhaz from the 16th century. are the most recent, but they form a significant layer in the Abkhaz lexicon. an 'head of the community'< Rus starsina, a-vers 'versta (3500 feet)' < Rus versta, a-p'aselk8 'a district in a village'< Rus posc/ok'settlement ', etc.
Pa-.. ': z ... : z(